As parents gear up for back to school, it’s time to consider immunizations. August is National Immunization Awareness Month. Here we provide some basic info about immunizations for children – what’s needed, what do you need to know. For more, visit Healthwise.
What are immunizations?
Immunizations help protect you or your child from disease. They also help reduce the spread of disease to others and prevent epidemics. Most are given as shots. They are sometimes called vaccines, or vaccinations.
In many cases when you get a vaccine, you get a tiny amount of a weakened or dead form of the organism that causes the disease. This amount is not enough to give you the actual disease. But it is enough to cause your immune system to make antibodies that can recognize and attack the organism if you are ever exposed to it.
Sometimes a vaccine does not completely prevent the disease, but it will make the disease much less serious if you do get it.
Some immunizations are given only one time. Others require several doses over time.
Why should you get immunized?
- Immunizations protect you or your child from dangerous diseases.
- They help reduce the spread of disease to others.
- Getting immunized costs less than getting treated for the diseases that the shots protect you from.
- Vaccines have very few serious side effects.
- They are often needed for entrance into school or day care. And they may be needed for employment or for travel to another country.
If you are a woman who is planning to get pregnant, talk to your doctor about what immunizations you have had and what you may need to protect your baby. And if you live with a pregnant woman, make sure your vaccines are up-to-date.
Traveling to other countries may be another reason to get immunized. Talk with your doctor months before you leave, to see if you need any shots.
What immunizations are recommended for children and adolescents?
Ask your doctor what shots your child should get. The immunization schedule includes vaccines for:
- Bacterial meningitis.
- Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).
- Flu (influenza). This vaccine is not given to children younger than 6 months.
- Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, or Hib disease.
- Hepatitis A.
- Hepatitis B.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV).
- Measles, mumps, and rubella.
- Pneumococcal disease.
Immunizations start right after birth, and many are given throughout a baby’s first 23 months. Booster shots (the later doses of any vaccines that need to be repeated over time) occur throughout life.
Fewer immunizations are needed after age 6. But older children and teens need shots too (such as those for bacterial meningitis and for tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough). Some shots are also given during adulthood (such as a tetanus shot).
It is important to keep a good record (PDF download), including a list of any reactions to the vaccines. When you enroll your child in day care or school, you may need to show proof of immunizations. Your child may also need the record later in life for college, employment, or travel.
Talk to your doctor if you or your child plans to be in a group living situation, like a college dormitory or summer camp. You may want certain shots, like those for meningitis.
What are the side effects of vaccines?
Most side effects from vaccines are minor, if they occur at all. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about the reactions that could occur. They may include:
- Redness, mild swelling, or soreness where the shot was given.
- A slight fever.
- Drowsiness, crankiness, and poor appetite.
- A mild rash 7 to 14 days after chickenpox or measles-mumps-rubella shots.
- Temporary joint pain after a measles-mumps-rubella shot.
Serious reactions, such as trouble breathing or a fever of 104.5°F (40.3°C) or higher, are rare. If you or your child has an unusual reaction, call your doctor.
It is much more dangerous for a child to risk getting the diseases than it is to risk having a serious reaction to the vaccine.
Can vaccines cause other problems?
Some parents question whether mercury-containing thimerosal (used as a preservative in vaccines) might cause autism. Studies have not found a link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. Today, all routine childhood vaccines made for the U.S. contain either no thimerosal or only trace amounts.
Some people worry that the shot for measles, mumps, and rubella can cause autism in children. This is because symptoms of autism are first noticed around 1 year of age, which is about the same time children get their first shot for measles. But many studies have been done, and no link has been found between this vaccine and autism.
References for this article.